Incidents from the Ancestral History of Charles Richard Dart and Dorothy Eleanor Green In an Oversimplified Historical Context

The ancestry of Charles Richard Dart and Dorothy Eleanor Green includes an accused witch, a spy, English Loyalists, American Patriots/Revolutionaries, a supporter of Charles I, a supporter of Cromwell, and many others. In order to understand these ancestors, it helps to have a bit of historical perspective, but the stories may be enjoyed without the history, too!

England 1500-1650

It all started with King Henry VIII of England. In 1529, when he wanted to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, in order to marry Anne Boleyn, he appointed Thomas Cranmer as his chief advisor. Cranmer was a Puritan prelate and church reformer, like John Calvin. Cranmer divorced Henry and Catherine. Other advisors to the king encouraged him to break ties with Rome. One advisor who supported the Pope was executed.

Though King Henry VIII wanted to clip the wings of papal power so that he could have the religious freedom to do what he wanted, he did not think that his subjects should have the same freedom. After all, they were his subjects and their "rights" did not include independence of judgement in religious matters or freedom of conscience; they had the "right" to do exactly what they were told. Of course, not everyone agreed. Some to avoid imprisonment or execution, fled to Holland. Among these people were the Pilgrims who eventually boarded the Mayflower and landed in Plymouth, Mass.

The state religion fiip-flopped several times as the kings and queens succeeded one another:


         Henry VIII died 1547

         Edward IV, son of Henry VIII, maintained Protestantism as the state church, died 1557 Mary, daughter of Henry VIII and Catharine of Aragon, tried to reintroduce Catholicism, died in 1558

         Elizabeth I, daughter of Ann Boleyn and Henry VIII, supported Protestantism, died 1603

         James I, was Protestant despite the fact that his mother, Mary Queen of Scots, was a committed Catholic; was unable to conciliate either the Puritans or the Catholics; d. 1625

So by the time that Charles I was King in 1625, the official state religion had changed several times and the relationship between the king and parliament was weakened. Charles was Protestant; however, his marriage to Henrietta Maria of France was very unpopular. Henrietta Maria was a devout Catholic; she was distrusted by her subjects. Nevertheless, she had paramount influence over her husband's foreign policy. Charles's unpopularity was compounded by his dissolution of parliament three times in one four-year period and by his unsuccessful foreign wars and arbitrary taxation. A civil war ensued. Charles was defeated and imprisoned. He was then tried and executed in 1649. This was the first time that a ruling king had been tried. Oliver Cromwell succeeded Charles as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England.

This was not the end of religious and political unrest in England; however, this part of history doesn't seem to be relevant to the story at hand. An outline of the change in rulers after Oliver Cromwell is as follows:


         Richard Cromwe111658-1669

         Charles II son of Charles I

         James II son of Charles I, Catholic, deposed in Glorious Revolution (1688-89)

         Mary II daughter of James 11, Protestant, d.1694, married William III (grandson of Charles I), William died 1701

         Anne, queen 1702-1714, second daughter of James II

         George I, b. Hanover, great-grandson of James I of England, Protestant, b.1660, d.1727

         George II, b. 1683, d. 1760, acquired India and Canada

         George III, b. 1738, d. 1820, became insane ca 1765, grandson of George II

Now, let's look at what was happening in other parts of Europe and North America at the same time.

Europe 1500-1650

You will recall that Thomas Cranmer was a Puritan who helped King Henry VIII. At about the same time, others were preaching church reform in continental Europe: John Calvin (1509-1564) in Geneva and Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) in Zurich. Martin Luther (1483-1546) had already gained the support of the strong ruling German princes, and consequently had a strong following of clergy and citizens in Germany. However, in France, religious tension touched off the Wars of Religion from 1562 to about 1593, including the Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day in 1573. Many of the surviving French Protestants or Huguenots fled to reformed areas along the Rhine in Alsace and Pfalz or the Palatinate in Germany. In 1598, King Henry IV of France gave the Huguenots political rights and religious freedoms with the Edict of Nantes. However, starting with Louis XIII (r.161 0-43) Protestant rights were gradually reduced and civil wars broke out again. At about the same time, the Thirty Years War (1618- 1648) was devastating the villages along the Rhine Valley in Germany. Finally, in 1685, Louis XIV revoked all religious freedoms for Protestants. By 1700, hundreds of thousands of Protestants, headed toward the Rhine Valley. A similar migration from Switzerland to Alsace and Pfalz was taking place. Finally, by 1709, when Louis XIV's armies overran the Rhineland, thousands of French, German, and French Protestants packed whatever they could and traveled to Great Britain and North America, which they may have heard about from William Penn.

American Colonies 1609-1775

The first permanent settlement In North America was Jamestown, Virginia 1607. The Mayflower was headed to Virginia, when it landed in Plymouth harbor in 1620. Manyother boats followed. They carried a wide range of people from refugees to wealthy landowners to servants.

The immigrants were often helped by the Native Indians, who showed them what to plant and where to set up camp and so on. However, conftict often arose between the two different cultures. In particular, the Indian Chief Philip (Metacomet) of the Wampanoags of Rhode Island ("King Philip"), though friendly to the colonists at Plymouth, came to believe that the increased colonization meant the destruction of his peoples. The Indians believed that the land belonged to no one. The settlers interpreted this to mean that it was available for them to own. The settlers treated the Indians with contempt. There were laws forbidding people to pay the Indians for their land. The Indians resented the settlers' attempts to convert them to Christianity. Finally, King Philip's War (1675-1676) started over the murder of an Indian. In the course of the war, 12 towns in central Massachusetts were destroyed. The war ended when the Naragansetts and the Nipmucks were defeated and Philip was killed in Rhode Island in 1676.

In 17th century Massachusetts, witchcraft and Satan were part of everyday beliefs. The devil was invariably mentioned as co-defendant in criminal indictments. Even at the witch trials in Salem, neither the accused nor the accusers disputed that evil intentions could readily be translated into evil results. Some of the towns carried laws that allowed the death penalty for such things as witchcraft, adultery, cursing a parent, or acting in a stubborn or rebellious manner. Though these laws were seldom used, they were available if judges could be convinced to use them. In contrast to today, the rights of the defendant were not well protected; lawyers were allowed in court only if the defendants wanted them but the courts expected them to stay in the background.

In 1684, England imposed its first restrictions on the colonial right of self-government and levied taxes in Massachusetts. Encouraged by the English revolt against King James II, the Puritans successfully pressed for a new charter. However, as a compromise, they were forced to give political rights to persecuted and previously excluded groups, including Anglicans and Quakers. While the established Puritan order saw these laws as a threat, others viewed them as an opportunity for expanded trade and political power. Other threats to the established order included a decline in respect for the Sabbath, increased urban crime, and more formalized procedures for resolving local grievances.

Unused to the new laws, people allowed unresolved grudges to build up. A belief in divine punishment and the existence of witchcraft allowed the people to interpret the unsuccessful invasion of Quebec in 1690 and the recent attacks by the Indians as punishments for the moral decline of society. Factions built up within the Puritan church as a result of the changes to established order. The stage is set for the Salem witch trials.

American Revolution 1775-1783

While England was fighting its religious and political battles in the 1600's and 1700's. the colonists became accustomed to relative independence from England. They were not allowed to elect representatives to Parliament and, therefore, were not heavily taxed. On the other hand, most white, male settlers were property owners (or were likely to become property owners) and would, therefore, be eligible to elect representatives to their local governments. King George II had expanded the British Empire to include Canada and India. The British landowners were having to foot the bill for this expansion. When parliament and King George III (who was beginning to show signs of insanity by 1765) decided to levy taxes on American products, all the colonies objected. The concept of a "Loyal Opposition" was non- existent. Any motive for opposition other than "liberty" was, at that time, denounced as faction and discord; to avoid tyranny, the nation was supposed to be united. Therefore, the opposition to the new taxes had to be phrased in terms of protection of liberty. The rhetoric on both sides led to taking non-negotiable positions: Parliament had the right to be supreme t in the colonies; the colonies had the right to participate in their governments. The two sides t lost trust for each other and there was no room for compromise. Many colonists feared J change and argued that connection with England promoted stable business conditions, strengthened moral code and introduced social refinements. However, as the British regulations and restrictions tightened, many were swayed to separation. On April 19, 1775, armed Minutemen of Lexington Green and Concord fought the British who destroyed the patriots' (i.e., opposition's) store of military supplies. The British returned to Boston. Colonial reinforcements soon arrived. Boston was under siege and George Washington was made the Commander In Chief of the Continental Army. It is estimated that one quarter of the American population of the time actively supported the British.

Upper Canada 1783-1837

After the American Revolution, at least one hundred thousand Loyalists were forced to flee the Colonies. Many went to Canada, where they were given land by the Crown. There had been practically no European settlers in Upper Canada (Ontario) before this time; by 1800, there were about 12,000 in the area, most of whom were Loyalists. The British government provided the new settlers with supplies until they were able to establish productive farms. In order to ensure that the new provinces were spared the excesses of democracy that had troubled the colonies, England concentrated the power in an appointed lieutenant-governor and executive council, both of whom were responsible to the Crown rather than to the elected assembly. Power became concentrated in the hands of the elite among the Loyalists, the "Family Compact". However, the other Loyalists had been used to more democracy and objected to this form of government. In 1837, William Lyon MacKenzie led an ill-fated rebellion against the Family Compact.

United States of America 1783

Meanwhile, in the newly formed United States of America, there was a migration westward.


We Americans, 1988, National Geographic

Saints and Strangers, George F. Willison, 1940

Canadian Encyclopedia, p 1877-9

To Their Heirs Forever, by Eula C. Lapp, 1977

The Loyalists: Revolution, Exile, Settlement; by Christopher Moore

Canada and the United States, 1952, by Hugh Keenleyside

Witchcraft, Magic, and Religion in 17th Century Massachusetts, by R. Weisman 1984

Speak for Yourself, John

Among the passengers on the Mayflower in 1620 were Myles Standish, John Alden, and Priscilla Mullins. Though their characters were in sharp contrast, John Alden and Myles Standish were best of friends. John was young, quiet, thoughtful, and a beautiful letter-writer. Myles was brawny, athletic, and a military man; his wife was the first person to die in the Plymouth Colony. One night, when John was day-dreaming about the beautiful Puritan maid Priscilla Mullins, Myles asked if John would mind delivering a proposal of marriage to Priscilla for him. John was, of course, completely taken aback that he and his friend loved the same woman and reminded Myles of his own words: "If you want something done right, then do it yourself." Myles replied that in this case the best ammunition that he had were John's elegant words and that while he had no fear of walking up to a fortress and commanding that its inhabitants surrender, there was no part of "NO!" that he didn't understand; the mere thought of hearing a woman say the word took away every drop of courage. In the end, John could not deny his friend's request.

So, as John made his way toward the cottage of the beautiful Puritan maid, he picked a bouquet of spring wildflowers and remembered the terrible blizzard of the previous winter when he tromped through the snow to make sure that Priscilla was safe ...if only he'd proposed then! Now, as they sat in her cottage again, they reminisced about England; Priscilla recalled the beautiful kempt hedgerows, walls of neatly stacked rocks, and ivy-covered church towers, all signs of years of civilization, that contrasted sharply with the rough log houses, muddy paths, and untamed forests of the Plymouth Colony. ..and oh, the terrible snow. On that cue, John pointed out that what Priscilla needed was a strong man to be her husband and that indeed, the purpose of his visit was to deliver Myles Standish's proposal of marriage.

Priscilla could hardly believe her ears! She must have sounded more unhappy than she really was. Her parents had not survived the rigors of the new colony, so she did live alone; however, her neighbors were nice, the spring flowers were beautiful, and she enjoyed quietly sitting in her chair and spinning wool or singing psalms. ..and secretly she had a certain fondness for John. "Well, if he wants to marry me, why doesn't he ask for himself?"

John, the writer of beautiful letters, sometimes didn't take enough time to edit his speech, "He just doesn't have time for things like that!"

"And if he doesn't have time now, what will happen when the glow of first love dims? Women are from Venus; for us, feelings are important."

"Ah, yes. And Men are from Mars! And Myles is the best Martian. He may be short and a little gray, but the things that he has accomplished. Why, you remember all his success and courage in the battles of ..."

And as John eloquently listed the feats of his friend, Priscilla nodded her head enjoying the sound of John's voice but not listening. She smiled warmly and her eyes sparkled. Without knowing where the words came from, she said, " Your words convey your love for your friend; however, I feel sad when you do not speak for yourself."

At that point, John did the old fashioned equivalent of taking a cold shower: he went for a walk along the beach. It was cold and rainy; the wind was blowing and the sea was foaming. "Oh, it cannot be: my best friend's love loves me! Oh, woe! It is a choice between God and Satan." Then he saw the Mayflower anchored in the harbor, its anticipation of the journey home evident as it bobbed in the waves of the storm. "The Lord has given me a sign: I must go home to be near my mother's grave and avoid the dishonor of stealing my best friend's love."

At home, John related the events of the day to Myles very honestly, only softening some of the events to spare his friend's feelings. However, Myles, feeling betrayed, accused John of having colored the marriage proposal in such a way that it could not possibly have been accepted. He ended saying, "Let there be nothing between us save war, and implacable hatred." As if in answer to the curse, a man appeared at the door calling the brave Captain Myles Standish to battle against the hostile Indians.

Even more convinced that he must return to England, John packed his belongings and then lay on his bed sleepless, waiting for morning. Myles returned to the house during the night; decided to let his friend sleep. Either man could have broken the silence. In the morning, John watched with pride as his friend donned his beautiful military costume. Either man could have broken the silence.

John walked to the beach where the dinghy was waiting to carry the sailors and the returning Pilgrim to the Mayflower. He had one foot in the boat and one foot on Plymouth Rock, when he caught the eye of Priscilla. She looked at him with disbelief and sadness; her eyes said, "Do you know what you are doing? Please stay!" Suddenly, the omens whose messages had seemed so clear were replaced by a sense of her preciousness and his need to protect her. John took his foot out of the boat placing it back on the rock and, because it would have been unseemly to rush back to shore and embrace his loved one, stood looking toward heaven yelling, "Here I remain!" The crew hoisted the sails as happy to be returning to England as all the Pilgrims were to remain.

John managed to get back to shore and stood watching the Mayflower leave the harbor. He turned and was startled to see Priscilla by his side. Priscilla felt that John was ignoring her, "I think that I have offended you by having spoken my feelings about you so bluntly yesterday. I know that women are supposed to be more reserved; however, there are moments in our lives when we need to speak frankly. Women are often expected to be speechless ghosts hiding our inner life like a subterranean river running through caverns of darkness, unheard and unseen."

"Oh, truly, Priscilla, women seem to me more like the beautiful rivers that watered the gardens of Eden, more like the river Euphrates flowing through deserts of Havilah, filling the land with delight and memories of sweet gardens!"

"John, you still do not understand. I am only asking for sympathy and kindness. I speak directly and you change my meaning; you answer with flattering phrases that I find insipid and insulting. I have always liked to be with you and talk with you. I was hurt by your proposal of marriage on behalf of your friend. I only tell you this because, as a friend, your friendship is worth much more to me than all the love that that man could give me if he were twice the hero you think him." She extended her hand.

John eagerly shook her hand, feeling relief from the ache in his heart. "Yes, we must ever be friends." As they walked through the fields toward their respective homes, they discussed the reaction of Captain Myles to John's story of the previous day. Priscilla laughed and called the Captain "a little chimney ...heated hot in a moment."

In the meantime, Myles was out hunting Indians. He enjoyed the smell of gun powder far more than that of the fresh greens of spring. It took him a good three days to reach the encampment of Indians who were supposed to be preparing for war. Families were sitting around cooking, smoking, talking. Two giants, Wattawamat and Pecksuot, greeted the Captain and asked for gunpowder or blankets to trade. The Captain handed the Indians Bibles instead. The Indians mocked the Captain. At first, they teased him about his size. Then they threatened, "We have lots of sharp knives. Our knives are powerful: when they marry, they will produce many children." After a few minutes of this taunting, the Captain stabbed Pecksuot. The arrows that flew as retaliation were met by gunfire. Soon Wattawamat fell to the ground dead, as if wanting to protect the land of his fathers from the grasp of his foe.

When the Captain returned to the village, he mounted the head of Wattawamat on the church roof. Priscilla shuddered to think of welcoming this returning hero into her arms. All the following summer, John worked on improving his property. He built a house and thought of Priscilla. He dug a well and thought of Priscilla. He planted an orchard and thought of Priscilla. He read the Bible and thought of Priscilla. And his feet carried him regularly to her doorstep. On one afternoon, John watched Priscilla working at her spinning wheel. "Truly, Priscilla, you have never an idle moment. You are so thrifty and thoughtful of others. When I see you like this, you seem transformed into Bertha the Beautiful Spinner, Queen of Switzerland. Later generations of daughters will speak of you as Priscilla the Spinner."

John was so absorbed in his long story about Bertha that he failed to notice when Priscilla stopped spinning and approached him with a skein of spun wool. "Now, John, I need to wind the wool. Put your hands in the air like this." She slipped the skein over his hands. "Now, John, later generations of sons will speak of you as John the Skein Holder!"

They sat talking like that for quite a while, when a messenger interrupted with the news that Captain Myles Standish had been killed by an Indian's poisoned arrow. Priscilla was horrified at the thought of what would now become of the village. John seemed to feel an arrow in his heart at the loss of his friend. Then, he realized that he was free from his obligation to his friend. Full of delight and completely unaware of what he was doing, he threw his arms around Priscilla the beautiful Puritan maiden, forgetting that his hands were still tied by the skein around his wrists. Before he realized it, he exclaimed, "Those whom the Lord hath united, let no man put them asunder!"

Needless to say, the whole village came out for the wedding. The service was short and simple. As the newly weds turned to leave the church, the bride turned pale and the groom was visibly shaken. There, at the church entrance, in his beautiful military costume was Captain Myles Standish. A hush fell over the congregation. The couple approached the Captain. The Captain held out his hand and said, "I'm sorry. Mine is the same hot blood that leaped in the veins of my father. Let all be forgotten." The two friends shook hands; the Captain bowed to the bride. Then, the congregation surrounded the Captain rejoicing in his return.

Soon John was at the front door of the church leading his snow-white bull by a cord. A crimson cloth served as saddle blanket and a pillow as a saddle bride of John Alden would walk through the dust and heat of noonday.

And they all lived happily ever after.

P.S. The Captain would remind you that, if you would be well served, you must serve yourself.


"The Courtship of Miles Standish" by Henry Wadsworth Long fellow; this colorful account of the real story has been radically summarized and slightly modernized.

Lydia Pabodie, a granddaughter of John and Priscilla, is a gr gr gr gr gr great aunt of Charles Richard Dart. The ancestry of Lydia Pabodie is given below. The numbers represent the generation.

1.s      John Alden m Priscilla Mullens

2.s      Elizabeth Alden (first white woman born in New England) m William Pabodie

3.s      Lydia Pabodie m Daniel Grinnell Jr. (brother of Jonathan Grinnell)

The ancestry showing how Lydia Pabodie is connected to the family tree of Charles Richard Dart is as follows:

1.       Mathew Grinnel (1602- ...) m Rose (... )

2.       Daniel Grinnel (1633- ...) m Mary Wodell/Waddel (Nov 1640- ...)


3.       Jonathan Grinnel (1670- ...) m Abigail Ford (1679- ...) [Jonathan's brother Daniel married Lydia Pabodie, descendant of John Alden and Priscilla Mullins]

4.       Jonathan Grinnel Jr (07 Feb 1710- ...) m Alice Mias/Myers (12 Sep 1755- ...)

5.       Elizabeth/Betsey Grinnel (12 Sep 1755- 17 Oct 1806) m Ephraim Fisher (27 Jan 1751 -06 Aug 1834 )

6.       Abigail Fisher (29 Sep 1778 -23 Apr 1863) m Elisha Rich (04 Mar 1772 -08 Mar 1845)

7.       William K. Rich (19 May 1809- 22 Feb 1860) m Levisa A. Rice (09 Jul1821 -22 Jan 1902)

8.       Evelyn Elisabeth Rich (31 Dec 1851-10 Nov 1936) m Dennis Rockwell Dart (24 Jan 1850- 19 Mar 1926)

9.       William Allan Dart (07 Aug 1889- 24 Dec 1961) m Ethel Blanch Miles (27 Mar 1889- 15 Mar 1985)

10.     Charles Richard Dart (01 Feb 1923 -)

Francis Cooke was another member of the group who sailed on the Mayflower in 1620. He was an ancestor of Charles Richard Dart.


1.       Francis Cooke (... -07 Apr 1663) [arrived on Mayflower, 1620] m Hester Mahieu (... ) [arrived on Anne 1623]

2.       Jane Cooke (... ) m Experience Mitchell (ca 1609- 1689) [both arrived on Anne 1623]

3.       Sarah Mitchel (... -1731) m John Hayward ( ca 1710)

4.       Mary Hayward (20 Apr 1672- 05 Nov 1712) m William Ames Jr (11 Jun 1673- 20 Nov 1712)

5.       William Ames III (18 Sep 1701 -very old) m Elizabeth Jennings (... -06 Feb 1764)

6.       Joseph Ames (10 Jun 1738- 07 Dec 1831) m Elizabeth Parker (1739/40- 11 Aug 1804)

7.       Henry Ames (06 Mar 1771- 21 Dec 1857) m Mary/Polly Eggleston (30 Mar 1773 -10 Jun 1848)

8.       Lettetia Ames (28 Oct 1810 -24 Oct 1875) m Barden Sylvester Rich (10 Oct 1807 -26 Dec 1884)

9.       Martha Rosetta Rich (03 Mar 1843- 14 Apr 1875) m George Clark (1842- ...)

10.     Bertha Estella Clark (20 Dec 1862 -07 Mar 1946) m Benjamin Dunbar Miles 25 May 1858 -01 Jul 1914)

11.     Ethel Blanch Miles (27 Mar 1889- 15 Mar 1985) m William Allan Dart (07 Aug 1889 -24 Dec 1961 )

12.     Charles Richard Dart (01 Feb 1923 -)

Ancestors of Ethel Blanche Miles include:


          a.       John Billington arrived on Mayflower, hanged for murder of John Necomen in 1630 (first person hanged in New England); "one of ye profanest families amongst them; tied by neck and heels for cursing Standish when called to perform military duty, 1622; mixed up in Lyford-Oldham "mutiny" 1624

          b.       Moses Simons/Symonson arrived on Fortune 1621

          c.        William Basset arrived on Fortune 1621

          d.       Roger Conant arrived on Anne 1623

Ancestors of William Allen Dart include:

          a.       Richard Warren arrived on Mayflower 1620, 12th signer of the Mayflower Compact

          b.       Moses Simons/Symonson arrived on Fortune 1621

A Coffin For King Charles

Thomas Axtell left England in about 1643. He was probably an English soldier and certainly had strong Puritan beliefs. He settled in Sudbury and bought land from Edmond Rice; Rice and Axtell had probably emigrated together from Berkhamstead, England. In 1646, Thomas had scarcely erected the rafters of his wilderness home, when he succumbed to hardships and exposure. He left a young wife with three children

Thomas undoubtedly left England because of the war that was raging between King Charles and Parliament and the famine that affected his home village. Thomas's brother Daniel remained in England. He eagerly joined the forces supporting Parliament and was quickly promoted from Captain to Colonel, especially for his zeal in fighting the Irish Catholics who "had been guilty of murdering the Protestants". In 1648, King Charles I was captured on the Isle of Wight.

This was the first time that an English king had been tried without first being deposed. Many people, from the common folk to wealthy loyalists, were horrified at the chain of events. Among the protesters was Rev. Jeremiah French. After Jeremiah graduated from Cambridge University, he began preaching on the Isle of Wight. On the day that King Charles I was captured, Jeremiah preached a sermon in the morning and another in the afternoon deploring the "disobedience of the revolters" and "rebuking" them. Both the King and Jeremiah were imprisoned at Carisbrooke Castle on the island; three months later, Jeremiah was transferred to the Tower of London. After his trial, he lived in several places, continuing to preach in a manner that was "too precise and sharp" for many of his parishioners. [Later, 'the "act of Uniformity" found and silenced him. ..']

In the meantime, King Charles I was summoned before the high court of justice in Westminster Hall to answer the charge of tyranny, treason, and murder. Col. Daniel Axtell commanded the guard that was responsible for preserving order and repressing violence during the trial. Daniel oversaw who would be allowed into the court to observe the trial. When the prosecutor addressing the court said, "I accuse King Charles I in the name of the people of England", one of two masked women cried out, "Not half, not a quarter of the people of England". Daniel ordered his men to level their muskets at the woman. Fortunately, her companions hustled her out of the court and Daniel recognized the woman as a well-respected lady. No violence occurred.

Eventually, the King was sentenced to death and beheaded. Cromwell ruled until his death in i 1658. King Charles II was invited back to the throne after Cromwell's son Richard abdicated. ' , In 1660, many who had been involved with the capture, trial, and execution of King Charles I took up arms against the reintroduction of the monarchy. However, they were eventually defeated and on trial themselves. Among them was Col. Daniel Axtell. More than 10 years had elapsed since the execution of the king; not everyone had the same recollection of events. Undoubtedly, considering the shift in power, some of those now on trial wanted to minimize their own roles in the King's death. Daniel Axtell was accused of bribing his soldiers to shout for the king's execution and of having strongly urged others to sign the king's death warrant (though he himself had not signed it). Axtell denied the charges and maintained that he only obeyed orders. He claimed that one of his fellow officers who was now testifying against his former comrade had been more uncivil to the King than those now on trial. The Chief Justice complimented Daniel on his knowledge of law and persistence; however, he declared that since the superior officer had been a traitor, Daniel was a traitor as well. Before his execution, Axtell remained courageous and, with dignity, offered a brief final prayer for himself and a less articulate friend.



         Axtell Genealogy, 1945, by Carson A. Axtell

         A Coffin For King Charles: The Trial and Execution of Charles I, by C. V. Wedgwood, 1964

         Puritan Village: The Formation of a New England Town, by Sumner Chilton Powell

         Ancestors and Descendants of Samuel French the Joiner of Stratford, Connecticut, by Mansfield Joseph French, 1940

Rev. Jeremiah French is a direct ancestor of Dorothy Eleanor Green. Samuel French Jr. was the first of the line to immigrate to North America. Many of the North American descendants of Rev. Jeremiah remained outspoken in their loyalty to the King. A letter beside the name indicates European ancestry; a number indicates North American ancestry.


A.       Thomas French (... ) m Margery --(... )

B.       Philip French (Nov 1625 d ...) m Mary --( )

C.       Rev Jeremiah French (Dec 1623- May 1685) m. --Starre (... )           

D.       Samuel French Sr (07 Oct 1655- ...) m Susannah --(... )

1.       Samuel French Jr. (1687 -1763) m Mary Price (... )

2.       Jeremiah French Sr. (1722-1790) m Hannah Edwards (... )

3.       Jeremiah French Jr. (08 Jul1743 -05 Dec 1820) m Elizabeth Wheeler (14 Dec 1745- 14 Jul 1838)

4.       Hannah French (... ) m Stephen Miller Sr (1759- ...)

5.       Jeremiah French Miller (ca Sep 1800- ...) m Josette Dixon (ca 1816- ...)

6.       William Miller Sr (14 Aug 1835- 07 Mar 1887) m Alzina Empey (03 Mar 1842- 22 Jan 1903)

7.       Eunice Miller (22 Apr 1879- 25 Apr 1962) m Riley Lee Johnson (22 Oct 1877- 01 Apr 1955)

8.       Olive Johnson (01 Mar 1903- 28 Sep 1979) m Ansel Lester Green (15 Sep 1895- 26 Dec 1972)

9.       Dorothy Eleanor Green (30 Jan 1925 -)

Daniel Axtell is a gr gr gr gr gr gr gr great uncle of Charles Richard Dart. The ancestry that relates to the Axtell family is as follows:

a. William Axtell ( 1638) m Thomasine (... )

1.       Thomas Axtell (ca Jun 1619- Mar 1646) m Mary Starr (... ) [Thomas was the older brother of "Col. Daniel Axtell. the Regicide"]

2.       Henry Axtell (ca act 1641 -1676) m Hannah Merriam (14 Jul1645 )

3.       Daniel Axtell ( 04 Nov 1673- ...) m Thankful Pratt (... )

4.       Samuel Axtell Sr (25 act 1717- 25 Feb 1769) m. Hannah Hathaway ( )

5.       Samuel Axtell Jr (08 Jan 1758 -05 Jul 1835) m Celia Dean (23 Jul 1760 -05 Dec 1806) [Am Rev War: served under Capt Samuel Tubbs,]

6.       Sylvia Axtell (15 Mar 1794- ...) m Daniel Heald Rice (17 Feb 1790 -1834)

7.       Levis A. Rice (09 Jul1821 -22 Jan 1902) m William K. Rich (19 May 1809- 22 Feb 1860)

8.       Evelyn Elisabeth Rich (31 Dec 1851-10 Nov 1936) m Dennis Rockwell Dart (24 Jan 1850- 19 Mar 1926)

9.       William Allan Dart (07 Aug 1889- 24 Dec 1961) m Ethel Blanch Miles (27 Mar 1889- 15 Mar 1985)

10.     Charles Richard Dart (01 Feb 1923 -)

Edmund Rice, the man who sold land to the Axtell family, is also an ancestor of Charles Richard Dart:

1.       Edmund Rice (1594- 03 May 1663) m Thomasine Frost (... -18 Jun 1654)

2.       Edward Rice (ca 1619- 15 Aug 1712) m Anna/Agnes Bent (ca 1630- 04 Jun 1613)

3.       Edmond Rice (09 Dec 1653- ...) m Joyce Russell (31 Mar 1660- ...)

4.       Jason Rice (23 Feb 1688- ...) m Abigail Clark (... )

5.       Jason Rice Jr. (07 Aug 1728- ...) m Susan Haven (01 Jan 1726- ...)

6.       Jason Rice III (ca 1761 -14 Nov 1843) m Dorcas Heald (05 Jul1765 -05 Ju11819)

7.       Daniel Heald Rice ((17 Feb 1790- ca 1853) m Sylvia Axtell (15 Mar 1694- ...)

8.        Levisa A. Rice (09 Jul1821 -22 Jan 1902) m William K. Rich (19 May 1809- 22 Feb 1860)

9.       Evelyn Elisabeth Rich (31 Dec 1851-10 Nov 1936) m Dennis Rockwell Dart (24 Jan 1850 -19 Mar 1926)

10.     William Allan Dart (07 Aug 1889 -24 Dec 1961) m Ethel Blanch Miles (27 Mar 1889- 15 Mar 1985)

11.     Charles Richard Dart (01 Feb 1923-

Richard Dart of New London, Conn.

The exact arrival of Richard Dart in New London, Conn. is unknown. It is possible that he was the Dart who brought the original patent from the Crown for the township in about 1652. However, according to town records he arrived with a number of companions before 1662. He married Bethia in 1664. In 1664, he and his companions were ordered by the town council to either become citizens or make their departure. Richard chose to become a citizen. He bought a house Sept 12, 1664. The King granted him additional lands in the town of Waterford. The house that he built there was still standing in 1927. It is a good example of early colonial architecture. Apparently, Richard became a man of influence, for his name appears frequently in the town records and his will would indicate that he accumulated considerable property.

In about 1676, it appears that Eleazar Bishop/Bischoppe (born 1669) was kidnapped and taken to New London Conn. He was raised by Richard and married Richard's daughter Sarah.

When Richard's wife Bethia died in about 1705, he married the widow Mary Roe Dudley, who had become Lady Dudley upon the death of her parents.

In his will, Richard says, "As for my eldest son Daniel Dart, he having ben [sic] ungrateful and treacherous to me And I having already given to him my said son Daniel between ninety and one hundred pounds ...I give and bequeath my eldest Son Daniel Dart five shillings of Money to be raised and levied out of my estate and paid by my executer. I Give and bequeath to my beloved sons Richard, Roger, and Ebeneazer ..."

 What was it that caused the rift between Daniel and his father?


The Quiet Adventurers in North America, by Turk; Harlo, Detroit, CS61/t873/1983

Genealogy of The Dart Family in America, by Thaddeus Lincoln Bolton, 1927

Genealogy of Northern New York, by Cutter, 1910


1.       Richard Dart (... -24 Sep 1724); m. Bethia (... -ca 1705)

2.       Daniel Dart (03 May 1666- ...); m Elizabeth Douglas (25 Feb 1668- ...)

3.       Jabez Dart Sr (12 Mar 1709- 19 Nov 1776) m Bathsheba Griswold 02 Dec 1720 -01 Feb 1745)

4.       Jabez Dart Jr ((21 May 1742- 14 Mar 1812) m Rachel Mann (24Oct 1744- 20 Apr 1845)

5.       Simeon Dart (14 May 1770 -11 Nov 1859) m Phebe Allen (31 Aug 1778 -21 Mar 1873)

6.       Charles Dart (07 Feb 1807- 28 Jan 1870) m Olive Bailey (28 Apr 1808- 18 Sep 1865)

7.       Dennis Rockwell Dart (24 Jan 1850- 19 Mar 1926) m Evelyn Elisabeth Rich (31 Dec 1851-10 Nov 1936)

8.       William Allan Dart (07 Aug 1889- 24 Dec 1961) m Ethel Blanch Miles (27 Mar 1889- 15 Mar 1985)

9.       Charles Richard Dart (01 Feb 1923 -)

John Greene of Quidnesset or Kingstown, RI

Richard Smith, Sr. and John Green probably chose Wickford, North Kingston, Rhode Island for their trading post because it was out of reach from the Massachusetts Puritans. The year was 1639, one year after the founding of Rhode Island.

There is no trace of John Greene in England. However, a family tradition says that he did indeed come from England but had changed his name from Clarke to Greene. He may in fact have changed his name in order to gain permission to leave England for America. Perhaps, John or his family were sufficiently obnoxious to the authorities that he needed to change his name as well as his residence. Certainly, Smith was known to be outspoken and independent; according to Roger Williams, Smith had left Gloucestershire, England and then Taunton, Massachusetts "for his conscience's sake". It is possible that both Smith and John Greene held similar unpopular opinions.

In 1663, both Connecticut or Rhode Island claimed jurisdiction over Quidnesset neck, which included the land at Narragansett that Greene and Smith had purchased from the Indians. Both Greene and Smith actively supported the jurisdiction of Connecticut rather than that of Rhode Island. Was this perhaps due to the fact that Rhode Island General Court expressly forbid purchasing land from the Indians?

On May 5, 1664, John Greene was ordered to appear before the court at Newport. His spirited defense of himself apparently offended the court. Nevertheless, his speech must have been convincing, because after the court received Greene's apology for his rudeness, it granted him protection of the colony and declared that he would still be a freeman of Rhode Island. In 1671, he took the oath of allegiance to Rhode Island. In 1679, Greene signed a petition asking the King to resolve the dispute between Rhode Island and Connecticut.

SOURCES Descendants of Joseph Greene, Of Westerly, RI, by Frank L Greene,


1.       John Greene (ca. 1606- 1692.. 1696) m. Mrs Joan Beggarly

2.       Benjamin Greene (ca 1665-1719) m Humility Coggeshall (Jan 1671- ...)

3.       John Greene (ca 1688-29 Mar 1752) m Mary Aylsworth (1688- ...)

4.       Joseph Greene (1725- ..) m Margaret Greenman (17 Oct 1725- ...)

5.       Charles Greene (19 Jun 1749- ...) [soldier in Am. Rev.] m Waite Bailey (09 Mar 1751- 1791)

6.       Rev. William Greene (13 Aug 1791 -12 Jun 1866) m Mercy Sheldon (04 Mar 1791- 16 Jun 1862)

7.       Russell Greene (20 Jan 1781 -15 Dec 1841) m Martha Barber (29 Nov 1779- ..)

8.       Return Russell Greene (07 Apr 1819 -31 Mar 1888) m Mary Ann Waite ( 24 Apr 1821 -28 Mar 1866)

9.       Lester P. Greene (18 Mar 1849- 12 Mar 1928) m Alma A. Green (14 May 1855- 31 Dec 1926) [Alma and Lester were cousins]

10.     Clarence Lester Greene (03 Apr 1873- 19 Aug 1963) m Bertha Ethel Babbitt (188 Mar 1876 - 24 Jul 1932)

11.     Ansel Lester Green (15 Sep 1895 -26 Dec 1972) m Olive Johnson (01 Mar 1903- 28 Sep 1979)

12.     Dorothy Eleanor Green (30 Jan 1925 -)

King Philip's War

In 1675, The Indians of Massachusetts and Rhode Island began to resent the presence and behavior of the settlers and became increasingly unfriendly. The Wampanoags Chief Metacomet had initially helped the colonists set up their homes and farms; they even called him "King Philip". However, when he began to fear that his people's very existence was threatened by the settlers, he began to lead raids against the settlers. The stories that circulated throughout the colonies about the "marauding" Indians must have been unsettling to families that lived any distance from a fort or other protection.

Edward and Sarah Bobet had bought their farm land from the Indians. They found many Indian artifacts on their property, indicating that it had been a particularly popular meeting place. As the hostilities increased, Edward and Sarah became more and more nervous. Finally on June 25, 1675, they heeded warnings and went with their nine children to the nearby fort at Taunton, Mass. However, when they arrived, they realized that they had forgotten something that they prized (possibly a cheese hoop). Edward returned home taking his dog for protection. On his way back to the fort, he realized that Indians were nearby. He climbed a tree to hide himself. Unfortunately, the dog's barking at the foot of the tree gave away his location and the Indians killed him. When Edward failed to return to the fort, a search party was sent out. He is buried at the spot where they found his body.

Edward's son Edward Jr several years later overheard an Indian, who was perhaps intoxicated, boasting about having killed Edward Sr. Edward Jr. "later avenged his father's death".

One of the skirmishes that took place during King Philip's War was the Swamp Fight. Israel Hendrick had joined the fight by Dec 1675 and probably fought in this battle. After spending several days skirmishing and scouting, a group of men under Major Samuel Appleton met the Connecticut forces under Major Treat. The garrison in which they were supposed to shelter had been burned, so on Dec 18, 1675, the army of about 800 men was forced to camp overnight, outside in a driving snow storm. Their march commenced at 5:00 the next morning. The snow was deep, the terrain was rough, and each man carried his own arms and supplies. They arrived at the border of "the great Swamp" at 1:00 and mounted a three hour attack of the strong, Indian fortification there. They finally captured the fort, burned about 500 wigwams, and marched 18 miles back to their fort. They carried the 210 men who had died or been wounded in battle.

The Governor of Massachusetts had promised that men engaged in battles that drove the Indians out of Narraganset country, they would receive a gift of land in addition to their wages. This promise was finally fulfilled in 1736 when Israel's son Israel Jr received 100 acres on his deceased father's behalf.


The Babbitt Family History 1943-1900, by Wm Bradford Browne, 1912

The Hendrick Genealogy, by Charles T. Hendrick 1929

1.       Edward Bobet (... -25 Jun 1675) m Sarah Tarne

2.       Elkanah Bobet (15 Dec 1665- ...) m. Elizabeth Briggs (04 Nov 1672- ...)

3.       Elkanah Babbitt (22 Apr 1690- ...) m Mehitable Crane (05 Oct 1702- ...)

4.       Zephaniah Babbitt (05 Jan 1735) [Private in Am. Rev.; may have died in Arnold's expedition against Quebec] m Abigail Hamlin (08 Oct 1738- ...)

5.       Samuel Babbitt (... ) [corporal in Am. Rev.] m Lucy Glover (... )

6.       Glover Babbitt (ca 1801- ...) m Almira (ca 1801 )

7.       Michael B. [or D.] Babbitt (ca 1829- 22 Sep 1901) m Elizabeth Williams (ca 1836 -12 Mar 1905)

8.       Estella Babbitt (ca 1857- 22 Feb 1942)

9.       Bertha Ethel Babbitt (188 Mar 1876- 24 Ju11932) m Clarence Lester Greene (03 Apr 1873 - 19 Aug 1963)

10.     Ansel Lester Green (15 Sep 1895 -26 Dec 1972) m Olive Johnson (01 Mar 1903- 28 Sep 1979)

11.     Dorothy Eleanor Green (30 Jan 1925 -)


1.       Daniel Hendrick (ca 1617- ...) m Dorothy Pike (ca 1617 -1659/0)

2.       Israel Hendrick (11 Nov 1653- ...) m. Sarah Gutterson (03 Jul1665 )

3.       Joseph Hendrick (16 Mar 1695- ...) m. Sarah Roberts (15 Jan 1697- ...)

4.       Israel Hendrick (18 Jan 1724- ...) [Am. Rev.] m. Rachel Boutwell (02 Feb 1727- ...)

5.       Moses Hendrick (19 Nov 1756- 04 Sep 1844) m. Elizabeth

6.       Jonathan Hendrick (04 Mar 1689 -09 Oct 1872) m Polly Cronkwright (02 Aug 1802 -11 Apr 1876)

7.       Rhoda Hendrick (18 Oct 1838- 17 Nov 1926) m. John C Coffee Jr (1831- 20 Jan 1899)

8.       Eliza Coffee (05 Dec 1860- 1884) m William Johnson (ca 1856 -13 Jan 1908)

9.       Riley Lee Johnson (22 Oct 1877- 01 Apr 1955) m Eunice Miller (22 Apr 1879- 25 Apr 1962)

10.     Olive Johnson (01 Mar 1903- 28 Sep 1979) m Ansel Lester Green (15 Sep 1895 -26 Dec 1972)

11.     Dorothy Eleanor Green (30 Jan 1925 -)

The Salem Witches

Things were not going well for Thomas Putnam. His father had died and it looked like his step-mother and step-brother were going to prevent him from getting any of his father's estate. Furthermore, many in the Village of Salem were not happy with the man he had successfully supported for the post of minister. Though his troubles with his step-family were troubling, they were over-shadowed by the events that occurred at the house of Samuel Parris.

In 1689, Samuel Parris became a Puritan minister in Salem Village. He and Cotton Mather were important in establishing the connection between witchcraft in Salem and the recent deterioration of the quality of life in New England. He also strongly opposed close ties between Salem Village and Salem Town Footnote . Using the meetinghouse pulpit, he delivered provocative sermons, telling his congregation that their choice between his point of view and that of his opponents was identical to choosing between God and the devil or between heaven and hell.

The Parris household included an African servant, Tibatha, who entertained the young women of the family and neighborhood with her fortune-telling and magic. In early February, 1692, several of these girls and women were taken ill with strange fits. A local physician examined Parris's daughter and the others, including Ann Putnam Sr and Ann Putnam Jr. The doctor confirmed that the girls and young women were victims of witchcraft.

The town went into a frenzy looking for the witches. Women and men were accused; their bodies were searched for the telltale signs that would confirm their being witches. When they confessed and pointed to other witches, they were released. Then the newly accused went through the same ordeal.

Rebecca Nurse and her sister Sarah Cloyce were reputed to have been very pious women. Politically, Rebecca Nurse, Sarah Cloyce, and Peter Cloyce belonged to the anti-Parris faction. Rebecca Nurse was among the first of the witches to be tried (March 23, 1692), convicted (June 30), and executed (July 19). After Rebecca had been sentenced, an incident illustrating Sarah's character occurred. When Samuel Parris started one of his usual inflammatory sermons, Sarah stood up, walked to the door, opened it violently, and walked out in protest. Sarah's husband, Peter, and his brother stopped attending the weekly church meetings. Consequently, Parris threatened disciplinary sanctions against the three members of the Cloyce family. Sarah Cloyce was sentenced for witchcraft on April 4, 1692, and then imprisoned.

Among the people most active in testifying against the witches were Thomas Putnam, his wife Ann, his daughter Ann, his brother Edward, and a niece.

The Superior Court of Judicature dismissed her case in Jan 1693. A movie about the Salem witch trials called "A Sovereign for Sister Sarah" was aired on PBS several years ago. Sarah Cloyce was finally given a sovereign for her ordeal. Sarah and Peter moved their family to New Hampshire.

Ann Putnam Jr. eventually recanted her testimony and apologized for the harm that she had caused. Thomas never got the inheritance that he thought he deserved and eventually moved to Sutton, Mass.



         Witchcraft, Magic, and Religion in 17th Century Massachusetts, by Richard Weisman, 1984

         One Hundred and Sixty Allied Families, by John Osborne Austin, 1977

         Genealogy of Northern New York, by Cutter

         Genealogical Dictionary of Maine and New Hampshire, by Noyes et al


1.       John Putnam (17 Jan 1579- 30 10 1662) m Priscilla Gould

2.       Lt. Thomas Putnam Sr. ( 07 Mar 1614- 10 May 1686) m Ann Holyoke (1626- 01 Sep 1665)

3.       Edward Putnam Sr. (04 Jul1654 -10 Mar 1747) m Mary Hale (... )

4.       Edward Putnam Jr (29 Apr 1682- ...) m. Sarah Miles (see Miles lineage)

5.       Edward Putnam III (1711 -17 Feb 1800) m Ruth Fuller (... )

6.       Phebe Putnam (02 Nov 1745- ...) m Nathaniel Rich (20 Mar 1742- 1800)

7.       Elisha Rich (04 Mar 1772- 08 Mar 1845) m Abigail Fisher (29 Sep 1778- 23 Apr 1863)

8.       William K. Rich (19 May 1809- 22 Feb 1860) m Levisa A Rice (09 Jul1821 -22 Jan 1902)

9.       Evelyn Elisabeth Rich (31 Dec 1851-10 Nov 1936) m Dennis Rockwell Dart (24 Jan 1850- 19 Mar 1926)

10.     William Allan Dart (07 Aug 1889- 24 Dec 1961) m Ethel Blanch Miles (27 Mar 1889- 15 Mar 1985)

11.     Charles Richard Dart (01 Feb 1923- )


1.       John Cloyes ( ) m Abigail (... )

2.       Peter Cloyes (27 May 1639/40-18 Ju11708) m Hannah/Anne Littlefield ((Aug 1633-ca 1680) [second marriage to Mrs. Sarah Towne Bridges who was tried as a witch]

3.       Sarah Cloyes ( 166/7 ) m John Cunnable ( ca 1650 -1724 )

4.       Hannah Cunnable (8 Aug 1697- ...) m Jonathan Benjamin (... )

5.       William Benjamin (16 Jan 1738- ...) m Sarah Child (11 Aug 1740- ...)

6.       Jonas Benjamin (16 Jan 1738- ...) m Mercy Ann Saulter (17 Feb 1764- 14 Jun 1834)

7.       Lydia Benjamin (14 Oct 1797- 05 Sep 1862) m Stephen Richardson 15 Apr 1795 -14 Nov 1870)

8.       Alvira Richardson (12 Jan 1832 -11 Jun 1908) m Lester P Greene (13 Mar 1828- 24 Feb 1862)

9.       Alma A. Green (14 May 1855- 31 Dec 1926) m Lester P Greene (18 Mar 1849 -12 Mar 1928) [Alma and Lester were cousins]

10.     Clarence Lester Greene (03 Apr 1873 -19 Aug 1963) m Bertha Ethel Babbitt ( 188 Mar 1876 - 24 Jul 1932)

11.     Ansel Lester Green (15 Sep 1895 -26 Dec 1972) m Olive Johnson (01 Mar 1903- 28 Sep 1979)

12.     Dorothy Eleanor Green (30 Jan 1925 -)

The Loyalists

In 1776, Jeremiah French Jr. was more than a little uncomfortable with his neighbors' discontent against the British. As Constable, Jeremiah was responsible for "law and order" and, of course, that meant loyalty to the King. His roots were in England. His grandfather had been born in England. Rev. Jeremiah, the man that he was named after, had been jailed for -his support of the monarchy. A Nonconformist friend of Rev. Jeremiah had baptized Jeremiah Jr.'s grandfather. He and his family were members of the Church of England; Jeremiah's grandfather, a master carpenter, had helped build many Connecticut churches. Jeremiah's father owned most of Manchester (including all of what in 1940 was called Manchester Village). When Jeremiah moved there, he became Town Clerk from 1768 to 1773 and Constable in 1774.

On July 15, 1777, Jeremiah French Jr. had no choice but to enlist as Captain of the 4th Company of the Queens Loyal Rangers. His father and most of his siblings were vocal Loyalists. However, the family was divided in its loyalties: one brother-in-law and a brother fought with the rebels.

During the war, villages also had divided loyalties. If a family found themselves in the minority in their home town, they were often forced by their neighbors to relinquish their homes or farms to the majority. This was the situation for Hannah Wheeler French, wife of Jeremiah Jr. Unfortunately, Jeremiah had been involved in the disastrous attack on Albany and had been forced to flee to Canada, leaving his wife and six children in Manchester. The villagers had seized the cattle and horses belonging to the French family. By May 1778, the State Council ordered that Jeremiah's land be tilled for the benefit of the rebels. Mrs. French was not timid in her opposition to this use of her farm and "carried a bitter tongue". She refused to give up her land peacefully. Finally, the State Council ordered that all her remaining movable possessions except for necessary bedding (two feather beds and bedding, six coverlets), clothing, and kitchen utensils (knives, forks, two platters, five plates, two basins, one quart cup) be sold in order to pay for her transportation out of the colonies. A rebel guard transported Mrs French and her children to the British lines. She and her children lived in Montreal for five years. [Is this where the family met Josette nee ??? Dixon Lagrow, the mother of son Jeremiah's future wife?]

The British General Cornwallis surrendered on Oct 19, 1781; however, British troops remained in New York City until the Treaty of Paris officially ended the war on Sept 3, 1783. In Nov, 1781, Jeremiah Jr. was appointed Lieutenant in the Second Battalion of the King's Royal Regiment of New York. After the Treaty was signed, he was finally reunited with his family in the winter of 1783/4. He must have been very attractive in his uniform. The coat of his uniform was scarlet, with blue facings and gold lace; it had a small epaulette of gold fringe on each shoulder; the buttons were gilt with "KRR, New York" stamped on them; the breeches were of white cloth.

England granted land to Loyalists who could prove that they had lost property or had in some way supported the British. In 1784, Jeremiah French and many of his siblings were granted substantial tracts of land (e.g. 600 acres) in Cornwall in Upper Canada (or Ontario) near the border with Quebec on the St. Lawrence River.

The Treaty of Paris included a clause that recommended that persecution of Loyalists should cease, that they should be allowed to return to their former homes, and that property should be restored to people who had not actually taken up arms in support of the Crown. Apparently, Jeremiah Jr. returned to Dover, NY, in order to help his father reclaim the land which had been confiscated from him. His attempts were unsuccessful and in 1791, he returned to Ontario where he and his family remained. Later, a granddaughter attempted to retrieve Jeremiah Jr.'s property.

Jeremiah was a prominent member of the Loyalist settlement. He became a representative in the first House of Assembly of Upper Canada and was a Justice of the Peace. He owned a mill and had a contract to supply the lumber for the local jail. The family was visited by the Duke of Kent.



         Ancestors and Descendants of Samuel French the Joiner of Stratford, Connecticut, by Mansfield Joseph French, 1940

         Canada and the United States, Hugh Keenleyside, 1952

         Pamphlet from Upper Canada Village


A.       Thomas French (... ) m Margery --(... )

B.       Philip French (Nov 1625 d ...) m Mary --( )

C.       Rev Jeremiah French (Dec 1623- May 1685) m. --Starre (... )

D.       Samuel French Sr (07 Oct 1655- ...) m Susannah --(... )

1.       Samuel French Jr. (1687 -1763) m Mary Price (... )

2.       Jeremiah French Sr. (1722-1790) m Hannah Edwards (... )

3.       Jeremiah French Jr. (08 Jul 1743 -05 Dec 1820) [2nd Regiment, the King's Royal Regiment of New York, Lieutenant] m El izabeth Wheeler ( 14 Dec 1745 -14 Jul 1838)

4.       Hannah French (... ) m Stephen Miller Sr (1759- ...) [Stephen was United Empire Loyalist (United Empire Loyalist (UEL)) born in NY; 84th Regiment, the King's Royal Regiment of New York, Corporal, Pilot in the loyalists; private in West Chester Refugees]

5.       Jeremiah French Miller (ca Sep 1800- ...) m Josette Dixon (ca 1816- ...) [Josette's father may have been United Empire Loyalist (UEL)]

6.       William Miller Sr (14 Aug 1835- 07 Mar 1887) m Alzina Empey (03 Mar 1842- 22 Jan 1903)

7.       Eunice Miller (22 Apr 1879 -25 Apr 1962) m Riley Lee Johnson (22 Oct 1877 -01 Apr 1955)

8.       Olive Johnson (01 Mar 1903- 28 Sep 1979) m Ansel Lester Green (15 Sep 1895 -26 Dec 1972)

9.       Dorothy Eleanor Green (30 Jan 1925 -)

1.       Peter Brunner/Prunner (... ) [84th Regiment, the King's Royal Regiment of New York, Sergeant] m Gurtruy Wolfin (... )

2.       Peter Prunner Jr Jul1772 ) m Elizabeth Bouck (... )

3.       Margaret Prunner (ca 1805- ...) m William R. Empey,(ca 1802- ...)

4.       Alzina Empey ((03 Mar 1839- 22 Jan 1903) m William Miller (14 Aug 1834- 07 Mar 1887)

5.       Eunice Miller (22 Apr 1879- 25 Apr 1962) m Riley Lee Johnson (22 Oct 1877- 01 Apr 1955)

6.       Olive Johnson (01 Mar 1903 -28 Sep 1979) m Ansel Lester Green (15 Sep 1895 -26 Dec 1972)

7.       Dorothy Eleanor Green (30 Jan 1925 -)


1.       Johan Ernst Emichen (... ) m Maria Ursula Rosenbachi (..-.. )

2.       John Empey (1702- ...) m Elizabeth Snell (ca 1707- ...)

3.       William Empey (29 Apr 1728- 05 Dec 1803) m Maria Margaret Lauks (14 Feb 1767- 1789)

4.       Richard W. Empey (27 Sep 1773- 27 Sep 1856) m Hannah Baker (ca1784 ) [Hannah's father was Adam Baker, the King's Royal Regiment of New York, soldier]

5.       Alzina Empey ((03 Mar 1839- 22 Jan 1903) m William Miller (14 Aug 1834- 07 Mar 1887)

6.       Eunice Miller (22 Apr 1879 -25 Apr 1962) m Riley Lee Johnson (22 Oct 1877 -01 Apr 1955)

7.       Olive Johnson (01 Mar 1903- 28 Sep 1979) m Ansel Lester Green (15 Sep 1895- 26 Dec 1972)

8.       Dorothy Eleanor Green (30 Jan 1925 -)

The Patriots

There are as yet no stories about the Patriot ancestors.

The Patriot ancestors of Charles Richard Dart include:

         Ephraim Miles

         Ephraim Fisher

         Samuel Axtell (gr gr great nephew of Col. Daniel Axtell, the Regicide)

The Patriot ancestors of Dorothy Eleanor Green include:


         Charles Greene

         Zephaniah Babbitt

         Samuel Babbitt Israel Hendrick

Oh To Be Able To Ask, "Who's Going to Win?"

Why did Jeremiah Miller decide to leave Canada for New York State in about 1837? Was it economic conditions? Did he, like his father, fight on the losing side of another rebellion?

In May, 1833, Jeremiah Miller proved that he was the son of Stephen Miller, Corporal in the Royal Regiment of New York and was therefore, granted 200 acres of Crown Land near Cornwall, Ontario.

On Dec 31, 1833, Jeremiah Miller married Josette Dixon at the Cornwall Trinity Church.

On Aug 14, 1835, William Miller was born to Jeremiah and Josette Miller of Sheeks Island, Upper Canada.

On Jan 11, 1836, Daniel Miller was born to Jeremiah and Josette Miller of Sheeks Island, Upper Canada.

William Lyon MacKenzie led an ill-fated rebellion against the Family Compact. In 1837, he and the other rebels were forced to flee to New York State.

On Nov 3, 1837, Julia Miller was born to Jeremiah and Josette Miller of Barnstable Island , Upper Canada. Was Jeremiah already in New York?

According to the Canton, NY County Clerk's Alien's Report of 1868, William Miller, age 32 and born in Canada arrived in New York in 1837 (William would have been 2 or 3).

By 1837 or 1838, the Jeremiah Miller family was living in New York, probably in Massena. This was 4 years after he was granted 200 acres of Crown Land. What prompted Jeremiah to give up the land which he had so recently petitioned for?


1.       Stephen Miller (ca 1759- ...) [84th Regiment, the King's Royal Regiment of New York, Corporal; Pilot in the loyalists; private in West Chester Refugees] m Hannah French (05 Jan 1767- ...)

2.       Jeremiah French Miller (1800- ...) m Josette Dixon (1816- ...)

3.       Alzina Empey ((03 Mar 1839- 22 Jan 1903) m William Miller (14 Aug 1834- 07 Mar 1887)

4.       Eunice Miller (22 Apr 1879- 25 Apr 1962) m Riley Lee Johnson (22 Oct 1877- 01 Apr 1955)

5.       Olive Johnson (01 Mar 1903 -28 Sep 1979) m Ansel Lester Green (15 Sep 1895- 26 Dec 1972)

6.       Dorothy Eleanor Green (30 Jan 1925 -)